The terms Janaka raga, Melakarta raga, Mela raga, Karta raga, Sampurna raga, Parent raga, Fundamental raga, Root raga and Primary raga are all synonymous and mean the same thing. Likewise Janya ragas are known by other names as Derivative ragas and Secondary ragas. Janaka means generic and Janya means generated.
There are 72 janaka ragas based on the 12 swarasthanas of the sthaayi.
A Janya raga is a raga, which is said to be born or derived from a Melakarta raga. There are 72 Melakarta Ragas. Every Janya raga has its parent scale or janaka raga. Hence the names Derivative raga and Secondary raga. It takes the same svaras as the svaras taken by its parent raga. Example: Mayamalavagaula is the Janaka raga of Malahari.
Janya ragas are classified into 8 types. They are:
- Varja Ragas
- Audava Raga
- Shadava Raga
- Janya Sampurna Ragas
- Upanga Ragas
- Bhashanga Ragas
- Vakra Ragas
- Nishadantya Ragas
- Daivatantya Ragas
- Panchamantya Ragas
Varja ragas are those janya ragas wherein one, two or three notes are deleted either in the arohana or avarohana or both. These varja ragas can be classified into:
|a. Varja Krama Ragas||Example: Mohana Ragam||Aro: srgpdS Ava: Sdpgrs|
|b. Varja Vakra Ragas||Example: Aananda Bhairavi Ragam||Aro: sgrgmpdpS Ava: Sndpmgrs|
|c. Varja Upanga Ragas||Example: Mohana Ragam||Aro: srgpdS Ava: Sdpgrs|
|d. Varja Bhashanga Ragas||Example: Bilahari Ragam||Aro: srgpdS Ava: Sndpmgrs|
Varja ragas can also be classified into:
- Audava Raga: In any raga in Arohana and Avarohana if only 5 notes are used to describe the raga then it is said to be Audava raga. Example: Mohana ragam.
- Shadava Raga: In any raga in Arohana and Avarohana if only 6 notes are used to describe the raga then it is said to be Shadava raga. Example: Sri Ranjani ragam.
These can be classified into:
|a.||Audava Audava raga||Both Arohana and Avarohana contain only 5 notes.||Example: Mohana ragam|
|b.||Audava Shadava raga||Arohana contains 5 notes, Avarohana contains 6 notes.||Example: Malahari ragam|
|c.||Audava Sampurna raga||Arohana contains 5 notes, Avarohana contains all 7 notes.||Example: Bilahari ragam|
|d.||Shadava Shadava raga||Both Arohana and Avarohana contain only 6 notes.||Example: Sriranjani ragam|
|e.||Shadava Audava raga||Arohana contains 6 notes, Avarohana contains 5 notes.||Example: Natakurinji ragam|
|f.||Shadava Sampurna raga||Arohana contains 6 notes, Avarohana contains all 7 notes.||Example: Kambhoji ragam|
Ragas in which both Aarohan and Avarohan contain all seven svaras “srgmpdn”are said to be Janya Sampurna Ragas.
These are classified into 2 types:
|a||Sampurna Krama Ragas||Bhashanga Ragam||Example: Bhairavi||Aro: srgmpdnS|
|Vakra Ragam||Example: Sahana||Aro: srgmpmd,nS|
Upanga ragas are those janya ragas, which take only notes, present in their respective parent ragas. Malahari, Sudda saveri, Arabhi and Mohana are examples.
Malahari takes notes from its parent raga Mayamalavagoula ragam.
Upanga ragas can be classified into:
|a. Upanga Krama ragas||Example: Mohana ragam|
|b. Upanga Vakra ragas||Example: Sahana ragam|
|c. Upanga Varja ragas||Example: Mohana ragam|
|d. Upanga Sampurna ragas||Example: Sahana ragam|
Bhashanga ragas are those janya ragas which in addition to the notes pertaining to their parent ragas, take one or two foreign notes as visitors. These visiting notes come only in a particular sancharas and serve to increase the beauty of raga.
The svarupa of the raga is revealed better by these foreign notes. Thus in a bhashanga raga, both the varities of a svara occur, the variety pertaining to the melakarta being called the svakiya svara and visiting note, the anya svara.
In Bilahari and Bhairavi, the kaisiki nishada and Chatussruti Dhaivata are the respective anya svaras; the svakiya svaras for the two ragas being kaakali nishada and suddha dhaivata resp.
The number of Bhashanga ragas used in Carnatic music are: 26.
Bhashanga ragas can be classified into:
|a. Bhashanga Krama ragam||Example: Bhairavi ragam|
|b. Bhashanga Vakra ragam||Example: Ananda Bhairavi ragam|
|c. Bhashanga Varja ragam||Example: Ananda Bhairavi ragam|
|d. Bhashanga Sampurna ragam||Example: Bhairavi ragam|
Based on the number of anya svaras taken, Bhashanga ragas may be classified into:
|a. Ekanya svara Bhashanga ragam||Example: Mukhari|
|b. Dvi-anya svara Bhashanga raga||Example: Attana|
|c. Tri-anya svara Bhashanga raga||Example: Hindusthani Kaafi|
Raga in which Moorchana is vakram is said to known as Vakra ragam. Here either in Arohana or Avarohana or in both atleast one note repeats.
Example: Aananda Bhairavi ragam
Aro: sgrgmpdpS Ava: Sndpmmgrs
In Arohana here notes g, p repeated twice.
In a vakra raga, the note at which the obliquity takes place is called the Vakra svara and the note at which the obliquity terminates and the original course is resumed is called the Vakrantya svara. The length of obliquity is the compass of vakratva.
|a. Vakra Varja ragam||Example: Aananda Bhairavi ragam|
|b. Vakra Sampurna ragam||Example: Sahana ragam|
|c. Vakra Upanga ragam||Example: Sahana ragam|
|d. Vakra Bhashanga ragam||Example: Aananda Bhairavi ragam|
Based on the number of Vakra svaras present, vakra ragas can be classified into:
|a. Ekasvara Vakra raga||Example: Nilambari ragam|
|b. Dvisvara Vakra raga||Example: Suposhini ragam|