Karur Dakshinamurthy

Karur Dakshinamurthy, who was actually a violinist, was part of a quartet of composers – popularly known as ‘Garbhapuri Composers’.

The main two were Pedda Devudu VenkaTasubbiah (a violinist, Karur Dakshinamurthy, 1860-1887) and Chinna Devudu Krishniah (Karur Krishna Iyer, 1861-1901, also a violinist and composer). The other two were Karur Chinnaswamiah (a violinist as well, 1888-1967) and Dakshinamurti Sastri (dates not known). The first three were sons of Narasa Ayyar and Akhilandammal. Dakshinamurthi Sastri was a cousin of the other three and was a lyricist and teacher in the High School at Karur. They were collectively called ‘Garbhapurivasa’ composers, often confused to be one single person, who composed in KannaDa together.

They had their training under Nemam Subramania Ayyar, a direct disciple of Tyagaraja. Karur Chinna Devudu composed several songs like ‘Neramanchakura’ (Sankarabharanam). His violin duets with his elder brother, Pedda Devudu had a premature end when the elder died. Chinna Devudu then trained his younger, Chinnaswamiah and both were playing together.

It was Karur Chinnaswamiah who was later honoured by the Music Academy wth the conferemnt of the title ‘Sangita Kalanidhi’ in 1950. He had accompanied most of the great artistes. His musical expertise was sound and used the full bow. Musiri Subramanya Ayyar, K.S.Papa Venkatramiah, G.N.Balasubramaniam and Varahoor Muthuswami Ayyar were his disciples. His capacity to present rich ragabhava, wide range of ragas, unequalled skill in producing rare and unique tones on his instrument and his remarkable attractive style have been complimented by Keerthanacharya C.R.Srinivasa Ayyangar.

Chinna Devudu composed note-swaras also like Muthuswami Dikshitar. ‘Sami Ninne’ (shree ragam – adi tala) varna is his. Their compositions are all in the tradition of Tyagaraja. Prof.P. Sambamurthi says that Dakshinamurthi Sastri wrote the Sahityas (script) which were set to music by Devudayya and that the two are called Garbhapuri composers after their signature ‘Garbhapuri’. A collection of the compositions has been published by the Music Academy, Madras.

Some notable compositions include Yadukula Tilaka (Chakravakam), Saaramaina (Behag), Brova Samayamaithe Ramayya (Gowrimanohari), and of course, Kamalamba Na (Kanada).

Mudra: Gharbapurisa

Compositions:

  1. ambA ninnu neranammiti – rAgamAlikA
  2. brOcuTa kevarunnAru – shrIranjani
  3. brOva samayamidE – gaurImanOhari
  4. durusugA krpa – kEdAra
  5. Emani pogaDudu enduku – tODi
  6. Emi nEramu nannu – garuDadhvani
  7. enduku nirdaya inakula – shankarAbharaNa
  8. entani nE vEDudurA rAmA – nATakuranji
  9. entani ninu nE vEDuturA sAmi (j) – kAmbhOji
  10. evate tALunurA naDatala (j) – suraTi
  11. kamalAmba nA cinta – kAnaDA
  12. karuNAnidhE kAmita – kAmbhOji
  13. koniyADa taramA – vakuLAbharaNa
  14. mari mari ninnE maravake – kAmbhOji
  15. maruvakadaya mOhanaanga – mOhanam
  16. maruvakudaya mOhanAnga – mOhana
  17. nA manavini vinavayyA – cakravAka
  18. nannu karuNincu – shankarAbharaNa
  19. neramencaku ra – shankarAbharaNa
  20. ninnu nammina vADanu – kharaharapriyA
  21. praNatArtti hara parAku – kalyANi
  22. rArA rAmA ravikula sOmA – bangALa
  23. sAmi ninnE kOriyunnAnu – shrI
  24. shrI mahA gaNapati ninnu – behAg
  25. venkaTEsha nIvE gati – khamAs